The horns above the eyes are long, thin, and pointed. With fifteen well-developed horns and horn-like structures, Kosmoceratops possessed the most ornate skull of any known dinosaurs; this included one nasal horncore, two postorbital horncores, two epijugals, and ten well-developed epiossifications at the back of the frill. He disputed that it had migrated there from the south, which was claimed by Sampson and colleagues (making its name, "wandering horned face", a misnomer). He therefore proposed that it was a species of Kosmoceratops other than K. richardsoni and assigned it to K. sp. They pointed out that in contrast to the Maastrichtian, the preceding Campanian stage had a better sampled, diverse, and far-ranging dinosaur assemblage, as well as more precise geographical and stratigraphical data. The subadult specimen UMNH VP 16878 was found scattered across an area of 3 m2 (32 sq ft), and the high degree of disarticulation and broken parts indicate that the specimen was skeletonized and decomposed before its burial in silty mudstone lithofacies. and his naming of a new species of Pentaceratops (P. aquilonius), both from the Dinosaur Park of Alberta, Longrich argued against the idea of distinct northern and southern dinosaur provinces, since the two genera were now known from both southeastern and northern North America. They suggested a sequence of events in the evolution of chasmosaurines that they found consistent with the phylogenetic, stratigraphic, and biogeographic evidence. By 76 million years ago, the supposed barrier dividing the lineages must have disappeared, as they coexisted afterwards; the dividing line appears to have been located somewhere between southern Utah and northern Montana. This dinosaur lived about 76 million years ago. They noted that many large ceratopsians had openings in their frills, making them of little use in defense, and that the wide variety in the size and orientation of their horns did not have an obvious function in combat. The formation preserves a diverse and abundant range of fossils, including continental and aquatic animals, plants, and palynomorphs (organic microfossils). This hypothesis has been challenged; one argument claims that northern and southern dinosaur assemblages during this time were not coeval but reflect a taxonomic distribution over time, which gives the illusion of geographically isolated provinces, and that the distinct assemblages may be an artifact of sampling bias between geological formations. [7], In a 2017 Master's thesis, paleontologist Nicole Marie Ridgwell described two coprolites (fossilized dung) from the Kaiparowits Formation which, due to their size, may have been produced by a member of one of three herbivorous dinosaur groups known from the formation: ceratopsians (including Kosmoceratops), hadrosaurs, or ankylosaurs (rarest of the three groups). She also determined that the largest Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops were adults, and therefore ruled out that one was the juvenile of the other. Tyrannosaurus lived during the Cretaceous in Western North America. Tooling for Beasts of the Mesozoic: Ceratopsians Body 4 is finished! Based in part on the relationship between Kosmoceratops and other chasmosaurines from around the same time, it has been proposed that Laramidia was divided into dinosaur "provinces" with separate endemic zones (this interpretation suggests that Kosmoceratops in the south was most closely related to the geographically separated Vagaceratops in the north), but this has been contested. Tyrannosaurus Rex was a large meat-eater from the Cretaceous. Wednesday, September 22, 2010. The naris (bony nostril opening) was different from other ceratopsids in being tall, relatively narrow from front to back, and distinctly ellipse-shaped (rather than near-circular), with a pronounced hindward inclination. Zuniceratops is an example of the evolutionary transition between early ceratopsians and the later, larger ceratopsids that had very large horns and frills. [2] In a 2010 press release announcing the study, Sampson described Kosmoceratops as "one of the most amazing animals known, with a huge skull decorated with an assortment of bony bells and whistles", and considered Grand Staircase-Escalante "one of the country's last great, largely unexplored dinosaur boneyards". Kosmoceratops was a chasmosaurine ceratopsid and was originally suggested to be closely related to Vagaceratops (which also had forward-curving processes on the back of the frill) but this has been debated, some authors finding the latter closer to Chasmosaurus. The Istiodactylus (Iss-tee-oh-dack-till-iss) (sail finger) commonly referred to as Istio, is a small istiodactylid pterosaur which lived during the Early Cretaceous Period 125-120 MYA in England. Lucas and colleagues conceded that there was some endemism that could not be accounted for by sampling biases, but they agreed with Longrich that this may have been due to competition or dietary specialization. [2][43], The discovery of Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops greatly increased the number of known chasmosaurines from the Western Interior Basin. In 2014 (and in 2015, in an article that failed peer review), paleontologist Nicholas R. Longrich considered the skull similar to Kosmoceratops in features of the snout but differing in the shape of the naris and nasal horn. [30], The possible functions of ceratopsian horns and frills have been debated, including fighting off predators, species recognition, and temperature control, though the dominant hypothesis involves enhancing reproductive success. … The cladogram below is based on Mallon and colleagues' 2016 analysis:[27] According to them, chasmosaurines originated in Laramidia around 80–90 million years ago and dispersed throughout much of this landmass by 77 million years ago. After the barrier dissolved around 75.7 million years ago, the Kosmoceratops lineage (represented by Vagaceratops) that had been restricted to southern Laramidia dispersed to the north, giving rise to all later chasmosaurines, such as Anchiceratops and Triceratops. This environment was dominated by wetlands and supported a diverse fauna, including dinosaurs such as the chasmosaurine Utahceratops. [18] Most ceratopsid genera are generally considered monotypic (containing a single species). Dr.Scott Sampson was one of the Paleontologists who got to name the Kosmosceratops. They project laterally from the skull and curve downward. Triceratops, large quadrupedal plant-eating dinosaur that had a frill of bone at the back of its skull and three prominent horns. Two remarkable new species of horned dinosaurs have been found in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, southern Utah. It had up to 800 teeth that were constantly being replenished, and were arranged in groups called batteries, with each battery having 36 to 40 tooth columns in each side of each jaw and three to five teeth per column, the Evolution study notes. Its fossils have been recovered from the Kaiparowits Formation in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, living with Deinosuchus, Nasutoceratops, Parasaurolophus, Troodon, Teratophoneus… Historical Period: Late Cretaceous (75-65 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 15 feet long and 1-2 tons. There are a total of 15 horns on the skull, the most of any known ceratopsian. The dinosaurs there appear to have been sensitive to latitudinal zonation in environment (potentially due to lowered physiologies or the environments being more productive), which possibly persisted for at least 1.5 million years. They also pointed out that there is little evidence for sexual dimorphism in ceratopsians. [38][40][41] The two most common groups of large vertebrates in the formation are hadrosaurs and ceratopsians (the latter representing about 14 percent of associated vertebrate fossils), which may either indicate their abundance in the Kaiparowits fauna or reflect preservation bias (a type of sampling bias) due to these groups also having the most robust skeletal elements. Its fossils have been found in places such as Alberta (Canada) and Arizona. [19][20], In 2011 and 2014, Longrich found the sole species of Vagaceratops to be retained in Chasmosaurus, where it had been placed originally (as C. irvinensis), while Kosmoceratops did not cluster closely with other taxa. [2][6] The subadult specimen UMNH VP 16878 had the same number and patterns of epiossifications as the adult holotype, making it possible to distinguish the subadult growth stage of Kosmoceratops from that of Utahceratops. [1][3][8] The main focus of the article by Sampson and colleagues was how these three ceratopsian genera provided new evidence for reconstructing the paleobiogeography of their time and place. (Grand Staircase-Escalante)", "A re-evaluation of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid genus, "Transitional evolutionary forms in chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaurs: evidence from the Campanian of New Mexico", "Temporal range extension and evolution of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid 'Vagaceratops', "Reassessing ceratopsid diversity using unified frames of reference", "A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae", "Filling in gaps in the ceratopsid histologic database: histology of two basal centrosaurines and an assessment of the utility of rib histology in the Ceratopsidae", "Bizarre structures in dinosaurs: species recognition or sexual selection? [17], Dinosaur genus from the Late Cretaceous period, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, "Amazing horned dinosaurs unearthed on "lost continent, "New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism", "Trump orders largest national monument reduction In U.S. history", "Remarkable dinosaur discoveries under threat with Trump plan to shrink national monument in Utah, scientists say", "What shrinking fossil-rich national monuments means for science", "Science and politics collide over Bears Ears and other national monuments", "The Wilderness Society et al.v. Compared to the short and blunt horncores of Utahceratops, those of Kosmoceratops were more elongated and slender, curving upward then downward, ending in pointed tips. [2] These genera, which were considered unusual compared to typical members of their group, were part of a spate of ceratopsian discoveries in the early 21st century, when many new taxa were named (a 2013 study stated that half of all valid genera were named since 2003, and the decade has been called a "ceratopsid renaissance"). With fifteen well-developed horns and horn-like structures, it possessed the most ornate skull of any known dinosaur species. Habitat: Plains and woodlands of North America. The frill of Kosmoceratops was more extreme than that of Vagaceratops; its width was about double its length (measured across the surface of the bone), with the parietal fenestrae being much smaller and positioned farther back, and it had more elongated and distinct epiossifications on the hind margin. Tyrannosaurus … Kosmoceratops had an estimated length of 4.5 m (15 ft) and a weight of 1.2 t (1.3 short tons). Ceratopsians, for example, had elaborate nasal horn, brow horn, jugal boss, frill midline, and frill edge features, as well as differences in body size and proportions, while the absence or presence of a single horn would have been enough to differentiate between sympatric species. Thirteen Triceratops were created by InGen in their compound on Isla Sorna where they were taken care of by the workers there.. Triceratops were highly sociable. The nasal horncore was quadrangular in overall shape and was placed relatively far back on the snout. A response to Padian and Horner", "The 'species recognition hypothesis' does not explain the presence and evolution of exaggerated structures in non-avialan dinosaurs", "Patterns of divergence in the morphology of ceratopsian dinosaurs: sympatry is not a driver of ornament evolution", "Revised geochronology, correlation, and dinosaur stratigraphic ranges of the Santonian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) formations of the Western Interior of North America", "Mountain building triggered Late Cretaceous North American megaherbivore dinosaur radiation", "Late Cretaceous dinosaur biogeography and endemism in the Western Interior basin, North America: A critical re-evaluation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kosmoceratops&oldid=970856035, Late Cretaceous dinosaurs of North America, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 August 2020, at 20:23.

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